Pressure volume system
For better understanding of heart diseases and better treatment development, researchers need to quantify the performance of the heart, more than relying only on blood pressure or ventricular pressure. They need to investigate subtle changes in contractility, elastance, energetics and efficiency.
To achieve this goal, emka TECHNOLOGIES provides a Pressure-Volume system from Transonic Scisense, to be used with IOX2 acquisition software, for the study of hemodynamics and cardiac function in small and large animals hearts.
The Pressure-Volume system from Transonic Scisense uses the improved admittance measurement mode, offering an excellent measurement accuracy and absolute volume in real-time.
Indeed, nowadays, the admittance technique has outclassed historical conductance technic, by providing a continuous correction of the parallel conductance without the necessity of saline injection.
Such correction is important for accuracy in volume calculation. Indeed, by removing the parallel conductance (part of the signal going through the muscle), blood signal can be isolated and true volume is calculated and reported in real-time.
Furthermore, Phase angle is provided, allowing to locate the catheter in the ventricle.
IOX2 software is used for the complete analysis of loops either in traditional conductance or improved admittance measurement modes.
Its PV loop module offers a very efficient analysis through the following features:
- Loops from single or multiple animals are simultaneously displayed
- PV cycles are user selectable for loop analysis
- Linear or nonlinear regression is used for curve fitting
- Regression accuracy increased, with specific beats invalidated in a serie
- Different occlusions can be compared, with several series displayed on the same graph
- Loops from single or multiple subjects are simultaneously displayed
- End systolic and end diastolic pressures and volumes, max and min pressure derivation dp/dt
- Cardiac output, stroke volume, ejection fraction and heart rate among others.
Technique & measurements
The pressure-volume loop technique uses inserted catheter. Cardiac volumes are derived from electrical signals measured by intracardiac electrodes located on catheter. Pressure and volume are plotted in an XY graph to study cardiac cycles and retrieve hemodynamic parameters such as ejection fraction, cardiac output, pressure and volume derivation or stroke volume for instance.
The pressure and volume signals are used to compute PV loops curves, when connected to IOX2 software through a usbACQ interface.
The Transonic Scisense “Advantage” system measures ventricular volume either using the traditional conductance method or using the admittance method. The latter discriminates blood and muscle contributions to the conductance signal.
Indeed, the capacitive properties of the cardiac muscle, in opposition to the purely resistive blood, cause a phase shift between the excitation signal and the measured signal. The admittance technique uses this phase shift to quantify and remove muscle contribution from the measured conductance signal, in real time.
This provides a great advantage over classical conductance volumetry which treats parallel conductance as a constant, rather than a dynamic variable which changes throughout the cardiac cycle.
The ADV500 system employs an equation developed by Dr. Chia-Ling Wei to convert conductance to volume instead of the traditional Baan’s equation. Wei’s equation corrects for the nonhomogeneous nature of the Catheter’s electrical field distribution, by assuming a non-linear relationship between conductance and volume, gamma (γ), thus improving accuracy over a wider volume range.
Biventricular Assessment of Cardiac Function and Pressure-Volume Loops by Closed-Chest Catheterization in Mice
Francois Potus et al, J. Vis. Exp. (160), e61088, doi:10.3791/61088 (2020)
Obesity Alters Molecular and Functional Cardiac Responses to Ischemia-Reperfusion and Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonism
Daniel J Sassoon et al, Basic Res Cardiol. 2016 Jul; 111(4): 43.
ENPP1 enzyme replacement therapy improves blood pressure and cardiovascular function in a mouse model of generalized arterial calcification of infancy
Tayeba Khan et al, Disease Models & Mechanism (2018)
Pharmacological Inhibition of mTOR Kinase Reverses Right Ventricle Remodeling and Improves Right Ventricle Structure and Function in Rats
Andressa Pena et al, American Jour. of Resp. Cell and Molecular Biology, 2017