Traumatic Brain Injury
Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is defined as a damage to the brain resulting from an external mechanical force.
TBI is a complex disease process (Masel BE & DeWitt DS, 2010) and several studies have demonstrated that long-term functional and structural changes take place up to 1 year after TBI 1, 2, 3.
emka TECHNOLOGIES solutions allow short and long-term acquisition of various physiological parameters in animals models of TBI (rodents, swine, dogs, non-human primates, etc), such as EEG, EMG, Blood pressure, Respiration and Activity. Our instruments help researchers better understand the pathological mechanisms and explore novel therapeutic options.
1- Smith DH, et al. Progressive atrophy and neuron death for one year following brain trauma in the rat. J Neurotrauma. 1997; 14:715–727
2- Kochanek PM, et al. Cerebral blood flow at one year after controlled cortical impact in rats: assessment by magnetic resonance imaging. J Neurotrauma. 2002; 19:1029–1037.
3- Liu YR, et al. Progressive metabolic and structural cerebral perturbations after traumatic brain injury: an in vivo imaging study in the rat. J Nucl Med. 2010; 51:1788–1795.
Wireless technology permits a constant transfer of high volumes of digital data from freely moving animals. The advantages associated with this technique are well established; higher quality data obtained from naturally-behaving subjects, which reliably captures detailed physiological events. Powerful software helps researchers comb through the data and analyze their subject’s response.
Various sized options are available in our implantable telemetry systems, all being able to collect EEG, ECG, EMG, Blood pressure, temperature and activity continuously during several weeks or months.
Non-invasive systems can also be used to collect neurological, cardiovascular and respiratory changes due to insult or injury. In external telemetry studies, subjects are equipped with an external transmitter housed in a jacket or a helmet. Physiological measurements are captured non-invasively and wirelessly transmitted by Bluetooth, to a receiver.
Experimental studies have shown that lung injury is likely to occur shortly after brain damage. After a brain injury, breathing patterns can easily be assessed using plethysmographs, a non-invasive solution. When further insights into the lungs are needed or when the assistance of a ventilator is required, comprehensive respiratory mechanics measurements can be acquired using invasive approaches such as the forced oscillation technique.
Our EEG analysis module allows the analysis of EEG morphology with time-synchronized video for behavioral verification.
Automated sleep scoring allows for further behavioral analysis through sleep staging that can be overlaid on signal screen. FFT spectral information can also be overlaid on the signal screen to observe changes between epoch.
With automated seizure detection, users can define seizure parameters and allow the software to identify points. Spectral analysis is displayed in a pop-up screen for further analysis on variable time intervals.
Heatmaps allow for easy identification of changes in signal over time or across leads that could be related to disease, activity or incoherence across various leads or brain regions.
McGuire, M. J., Gertz, S. M., McCutcheon, J. D., Richardson, C. R., Poulsen, D. J. Use of a Wireless Video-EEG System to Monitor Epileptiform Discharges Following Lateral Fluid-Percussion Induced Traumatic Brain Injury. J. Vis. Exp. (148), e59637, doi:10.3791/59637 (2019).
Dr. Poulsen works in the Neurosurgery Department, in the Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences at the University at Buffalo.
Their research focuses on the post-traumatic epilepsy and induced seizures as a result of traumatic brain injury (TBI).
He has been involved in the JoVE publication and he kindly shared his thoughts about his research with us.
Implants for rats
Implants for large animals
rodentPACK, head mounted system for rat
Use of a Wireless Video-EEG System to Monitor Epileptiform Discharges Following Lateral Fluid-Percussion Induced Traumatic Brain Injury
McGuire, M.J.et al, J. Vis. Exp. (148), 2019
Convulsive seizures and EEG spikes after lateral fluid-percussion injury in the rat
Debbie Smith et al, Epilepsy Research volume 147, November 2018
Surface Lead EEGs: Will It Stick?
Ken Kearney et al, poster presented at the Safety Pharmacology Society, 2018
Assessment of seizure activity in the telemetered dog: a new procedure using the rodentpack system
Poster presented by Posolt at the Society Of Toxicology meeting, 2017
Traumatic brain injury: a disease process, not an event
Masel BE, et al, J Neurotrauma. 2010
Amyrin exerts potent anxiolytic and antidepressant effects via mechanisms involving monoamine oxidase and γaminobutyric acid in mouse hippocampus
Xu Kun et al, Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, August 2019