Hemodynamic studies in rodents
Hemodynamics is the study of forces that must be developed to circulate blood through the cardiovascular system so that tissues receive an adequate supply of oxygen.
These forces are constantly adapting to the body's requirements and ever changing internal and external conditions. The hemodynamic state is defined by pressure and flow.
The miniaturization of sensors has made it feasible to study hemodynamics in anesthetized rats and mice. All hardware and software applications for running such experiments are available from emka TECHNOLOGIES.
Most setups measure blood pressure and flow, as well as ecg (typically 1-lead ecg, lead LII).
The BP_T transducer is inserted into the femoral artery where it measures systemic blood pressure. It is connected to an usbAMP amplifier.
Alternatively or in addition, you can measure left ventricular pressure by using a pressure catheter (model SPR-407 Ultra-Miniature Mikro-Tip catheter by Millar Inc., available from emka TECHNOLOGIES) inserted into the left ventricle. This catheter is connected to a control unit (model TC-510) then to an usbAMP amplifier.
For the ECG measurement, the three electrodes are connected to an usbAMP amplifier, via a 3-wire cable. Banana and clip connectors for connecting electrodes are supplied.
A flow probe (model MA2PSB flow probe by Transonic Systems Inc. available from emka TECHNOLOGIES) is placed around the aorta and connected to a control unit (model T402 from Transonic Systems). Notably this probe measures aortic flow directly, enabling measurement in real time.
Data acquisition is performed by iox2, with simultaneous analysis made feasible with a variety of add-on analyzer moduless. For the current application, any combination of bp (blood pressure), LVP (left ventricular pressure), BF (blood flow) and ECG-R (ECG rhythm) analyzers may be used.
BP analyzer (blood pressure):
Systolic and diastolic pressures, amplitude, mean pressure, heart rate
BF analyzer (blood flow):
Systolic & diastolic flows, mean flow, stroke volume, cardiac output, heart rate, mean blood pressure, total peripheral resistance
LVP analyzer (left ventricular pressure):
Peak systolic pressure,start- and end-diastolic pressures, developed pressure, mean systolic and diastolic pressures, systolic ejection period, diastolic filling period, contraction time,relaxation time, maximum & minimum derivatives, contractility index, maximum velocity at P0, heart rate, relaxation constant Tau (3 methods)
ECG-R analyzer (ecg rhythm):
R amplitude, RRinterval, QRS interval, isoelectric line, S average, S area, heart rate
Advanced ECG analysis is possible with ecgAUTO. Parameters:
• PR, QRS, QT, JT, ST, RR durations
- • P, T wave duration
- • QTc, JTc corrected values (QTc and JTc values are available with a choice of 6 calculation modes)
- • ST-segment elevation
- • P, Q, R, S, Tneg. & Tpos. amplitudes
- • P, QRS, T wave areas
- • QT in user-adjustable HR ranges
- • custom-defined parameters
Setup for studying mice hemodynamics differs slightly (transducers and control units).
In mice, the ecgTUNNEL provides another simple method to obtain ECG measurements (avoiding the need for invasive ECG electrode needles).